Genetics 101

Friday, August 15, 2008
by Conrad Storad

Genes are the basic physical and functional units of heredity. Each gene is located on a particular region of a chromosome.

Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine are nucleotides. They are the building blocks of DNA. Each gene has a specific ordered sequence of these nucleotides.

Genetic information is stored in DNA. Segments of DNA that encode proteins or other functional products are called genes.

Gene sequences are transcribed into messenger RNA. These intermediates are called mRNA. mRNA intermediates are translated into proteins.

Proteins are large, complex molecules made up of smaller subunits called amino acids. They perform most important functions for living things. Proteins make up the structure of cells and perform many functions within them.